This course introduces students to the institutions and processes of U. S. politics. It covers all of the fundamental principles and important decisionmakers, giving to students the necessary breadth and understanding to take more advanced and more specialized courses. In addition, it prepares students to evaluate the guiding values of the polity, both in theory and in practice.

Prerequisites
Students who have PG 101 transfer credit may not take this course.
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Social Scientific Approaches

How do we understand the fall of Apartheid in South Africa, the rise of Islamic Fundamentalism in Iran, the troubles of Russia's post-Communist regime, and China's attempt to blend communism with capitalism? This course provides students with the tools to understand these and other questions about how politics works around the globe. The study of comparative politics focuses on the basic foundations of political life and how these institutions differ in form and power around the world. This introductory course deals with such central concepts as nation and state, citizenship and ethnicity, political ideology, religious fundamentalism, revolution, terrorism and political violence, the relationship between politics and markets, democracy and authoritarianism, electoral systems and different forms of representation, development and globalization. These concepts are investigated through a number of country case studies, which may include the United Kingdom, Japan, Russia, China, Iran, India and South Africa, among others.

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Social Scientific Approaches

What are the causes of war between states? What conditions help make peace more likely? Is the international distribution of economic assets just? Why is it so difficult to increase the amount of cooperation between states? What role can non-states actors play in international politics? These are just some of the questions considered in this course. By focusing on the interaction of contemporary and historical international actors--including states, intergovernmental organizations, and non-governmental organizations--this course examines the interplay of political, economic, social, and cultural factors that influence the international distribution of power and wealth and contribute to world conflict and cooperation. Specific areas of study include causes of interstate war, terrorism, economic globalization, and international law and organizations.

Prerequisites
Students who have PG 103 transfer credit may not take this course.
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Social Scientific Approaches

This course is designed to provide an introduction to the enduring masters of political thought (Plato, Locke, Hobbes, Machiavelli, Marx) who enhance our understanding of the political order and its values by asking questions with clarity and determination.

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Knowledge, Identity, and Power

This course is an introduction to the construction of knowledge in the social sciences, and in political science particularly. In the first half of the course, students study the tools and methods used in political science. Students explore the connections between normative and empirical claims, uses of evidence, and theory building and testing. They ask how theoretical ideas are generated and how they inform the world around them (both explicitly and implicitly). In the second half of the course, they focus on the concept of power, central to any study of politics, to ask: how do actors use claims, theories, and data to reinforce or subvert dominant power structures? This class provides students the tools and perspective to become more thoughtful interlocutors and more critical consumers of information by helping them better understand the process(es) of knowledge construction. This is a required course for the major.

Prerequisites
PG 101, 102, 103, or 104.

Students work collaboratively to produce and grow an undergraduate journal on politics. Students recruit and edit submissions to the journal. Students also consider additional opportunities to bring research to new audiences, such as developing spin off opinion pieces, interviews with the authors, or other events on campus. In doing so, students engage in discussions about the purpose and value of academic research and the possibilities and problems with disseminating information. Students gain skills in editing, research, social media, and project management. This work is a collaborative process and involves team work.

Prerequisites
Permission of the instructor.

This course examines approaches and methods that most improve majors' reading, writing, and discussing books, articles, and other media related to politics and government. The instructor and students coach each other in efficient but perceptive reading, skeptical but sympathetic consideration of and conversation about perceptions and interpretations, and sensible planning and careful executing of responses to extant researches.

Prerequisites
Any two 100-level PG courses. PG majors only.

In this course, students disseminate political information to a larger audience. The form and the content can change. Possibilities include the production of a blog, a podcast, video explainers, a journal, or other medium. The focus on could be about political science research, state politics, or issue specific information. Students will learn about the challenges and possibilities of producing politically relevant and engaging material for a variety of audiences. In doing so, students will also consider how the production and dissemination of such information can alter politics.

Prerequisites
Permission of the instructor.

This course focuses on government and community actions designed to address this global pandemic in the United States. In this discussion-based class, students will apply lessons from political science and history to try and understand these unfolding events. We will consider the responses from multiple and overlapping jurisdictions including school districts, localities, states, and federal institutions, asking questions about the causes and consequences of different choices. Students will consider the impact on our lives and the nation.

Race is central to understanding American politics.This course asks the questions: what does race mean; how has it changed over time; what is the relationship between race and ethnicity and power; and what is the role of race in American politics. This course examines these questions by looking at a variety of historical and contemporary moments, and a variety of political forces including electoral politics, social movements, government institutions, and everyday politics. By the end of this course, students should be able to talk critically about the evolution of the concept of race in America, identify how race shapes our political language and outcomes, and evaluate contemporary racial politics.

Prerequisites
PG 101.

This class focuses on environmental policymaking and policy in the United States, emphasizing developments since the emergence of the modern environmental movement in the late 1960s. It offers an overview of environmental policymaking institutions and the key policies of the national and state governments, and explores the challenges that have come with the emergence of new issues and interests in the environmental policy field. The class gives special attention to the strengths and weaknesses of current policies and the prospects for significant reform of the "green state."

Prerequisites
PG 101.

Immigration politics and policy define the nation, its borders, its community, and its identity. Through an exploration of the political history of immigration, students gain insight into the reconstruction of American identity. The class looks at the rhetoric, the movements, the institutions, and the actors central to the politics of immigration to understand the current system and future political possibilities. Specific policy issues such as refugee and asylum policy, border enforcement, immigration detention, and birthright citizenship are considered.

This course explores many visions of the corruption of the American republic, exploring concerns grounded in the liberal and civic republican and constitutional traditions, commitments to and deviations from the core commitments of the American 'creed,' religious values, pluralism, the partisan and ideological 'spirit of faction,' and the abandonment of the hope that, to borrow from Richard Rorty (through James Baldwin), we can 'achieve' a country. The reading list includes books that engage broad themes in American politics and American political development, and this course exposes students to those themes while working through the multifaceted meanings of corruption, and the political consequences of these perceptions of corruption.

Prerequisites
PG 101 and Junior or Senior standing.

This course focuses on the US presidency. In the first part of the course students read two great books on the presidency and the American political system, Richard Neustadt's "Presidential Power" and Stephen Skowronek's "The Politics Presidents Make" as tools for understanding the evolution of the presidency as an institution and its relationship to the larger constitutional system. In the second half of the course students trace the growth of presidential power over the course of US history, focusing on executive management of the bureaucratic state and control of foreign affairs, and consider the implications of this development for the republic.

Prerequisites
PG 101. Credit for PG 309 U.S. Presidency will not be granted to students who have received credit for PG 310 Presidency and Congress.

The course focuses on the historical development of the legislative and executive branches, focusing on the interactions between Congress and presidents in policy making process. Some offerings of the course focus heavily on the presidency, and others are more focused on Congress; recent offerings have used a single presidency as a long case study of problems in presidential leadership and the workings of the legislative and executive branches. Prospective students may wish to consult the instructor.

Prerequisites
PG 101.

Detention is one of the most extreme forms of state control. This class explores the theoretical justifications for state detention, the effectiveness of this policy tool, the politics that lead to its use and acceptance, and the impacts of detention, both on the individual and various communities. Looking at the variation across three policy areas, criminal justice, the war on terror, and immigration, highlights what forces are at work on all three and what pulls the practices of detention in different directions, providing leverage on questions of justice, the balance of power, and the role of identity in public policy formation.

In a government based on "consent of the governed," elections are fundamental. They provide citizens with the opportunity to choose their leaders, and in the process pass judgment on the past performance of officials and broadly indicate the direction they want government to take in the future. This course approaches the study of parties, elections, and campaigns through the lens of presidential and congressional elections, focusing on the purpose, process, and problems of electing our nation's leaders. It looks at how the system works, how it came to be, what citizens want it to accomplish and what it in fact accomplishes, and what the possibilities and limits of reform may be. At the end of the course, students should be able to give an in-depth, well reasoned, and historically informed answer to the question, "Is this any way to run a democracy?"

Prerequisites
PG 101.

Examination of the role of the Supreme Court in the American constitutional systems with particular emphasis on its role in establishing a national government and national economy, and in protecting the rights of individuals. Views Supreme Court from historical, political, and legal perspectives to understand its responses to changing interests and conditions.

Prerequisites
PG 101.

There is widespread pessimism about the performance of American national government over the last 35 years. This course examines this gloomy conventional wisdom, exploring its analytical and ideological roots and its critique of American political institutions and public policy. The class then interrogates it, first by examining contrary arguments and evidence and then in a series of student-led case studies of government performance in specific policy areas. Students produce major term papers that assess the successes and failures of some public policy. The course aims at helping students to come to grips with the complexities of policymaking, the strengths and weaknesses of national governmental institutions, and the extent to which the pessimism that marks so much of contemporary political discourse is justified.

Prerequisites
PG 101.

This course introduces students to the nature, functions, and processes of law. The course surveys criminal and civil trials in the U.S., England, and France, appellate deliberations in several countries, constitutional courts and public law, and specific extra-judicial legal institutions. The latter third of the course details lessons of the first two-thirds by case study of litigation in the United States.

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Knowledge, Identity, and Power

The course surveys the state of civil liberties in the U.S. and the world. Primary emphasis is given to institutions in the United States and how they enforce, obstruct, or affect the protection of civil liberties. Specific topics include free expression, free belief, freedom of religion, and emerging rights and claims.

Prerequisites
PG 101.

This course focuses on social welfare policy in the United States. The first section of the course explores ideological debates over the welfare state, theories of welfare state development, and the historical development of the U.S. welfare state in comparative perspective. The middle section of the course explores arguments about challenges to political order created by market dynamics, the question of American exceptionalism, and the intersections of race, gender, and welfare in American political development. Then, we focus on core welfare state policies aimed at addressing problems of unemployment, poverty, access to health care, and old age security. The final section addresses questions about the sustainability of the welfare state, in practical, fiscal as well as ideological terms.

Prerequisites
PG 101; PG 314 recommended.

This course introduces students to the theory and practice of research about public opinion. Students learn about the creation and manipulation of public opinion, its measurement and study, and the implications of findings for the practice of democratic republicanism in the U.S. and abroad. Instruction includes projects in survey research and content analysis, so that students master the techniques of public opinion research as well as the theories.

This course in American politics focuses on key questions about local governance. Students explore institutional structure, civic engagement, local economics, and demographics to understand how decisions are made, power is wielded, and community needs are met. Students interact with local practitioners. Students could engage in sustained field work throughout the term.

An overview of the political systems of Europe that covers both the advanced industrial democracies of Western Europe and the emerging democratic regimes of Eastern Europe. The focus of this course is comparative, and students should expect to study a number of substantive themes such as the decline of "post-War settlement" and the crisis of the welfare state, the decline of party politics and the rise of "single-issue" movements, the move toward a more comprehensive European union, and the democratization and "marketization" of East European nations. Different instructors may decide to focus on one or more themes and /or one or more regions of Europe.

Prerequisites
PG 102.

Why authoritarianism? This course looks at non-democratic forms of political rule, investigating the rise, persistence, and decline of authoritarianism around the world. The course will consider ideological, institutional, international and other factors, drawing from historical as well as contemporary cases. In addition to understanding authoritarianism, we will consider the emergence of illiberalism as a newer tendency in democratic politics, and its possible relationship to democratic decline and collapse. Students will be encouraged to focus on their own particular regions of interest in order to broaden our comparative focus and discussion.

Prerequisites
PG 102.

A comparative analysis of the political economies of the four Asian "mini-dragons": Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, and Hong Kong. The course begins with a survey of China's, Japan's, and the United States' role in Asia and then places each of the mini-dragons in comparative perspective.

Prerequisites
PG 102 or permission of the instructor.

Understanding the diverse experiences of the peoples of Africa requires engagement with the cultures, politics, religions, and perspectives of people in more than fifty countries across a vast continent. While such engagement can hardly be accomplished in a semester, we will attempt to scratch at the surface in different ways that reveal ideas, experiences, and thoughts that reflect political life and culture in Africa south of the Sahara in a more reflective manner.

Prerequisites
PG 102.

Conserving wild places through the creation of national parks is not only a reflection of environmental priorities, but a profoundly political undertaking that can bring significant changes to local landscapes. This course examines the intersection of protected areas and political priorities in local, regional, and global context, including discussion of issues such as tourism, human-wildlife conflict, forced displacement, and community-based conservation.

Prerequisites
ENVR 200 or any PG course.
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Knowledge, Identity, and Power

This course offers an intellectual history of the evolution of the interdisciplinary research program concerned with issues of economic development, exploitation and political change. Working in the field of comparative political economy, students examine the classical theories of eighteenth and nineteenth century political economy and political sociology (Smith, Marx, Spencer, Durkheim, Weber), post-WWII neo-classical theories of modernization and development, and theoretical approaches at the global level in the wake of the collapse of the dominant modernization paradigm. Students apply these theories to contemporary puzzles of development, underdevelopment and political change and address broader issues of the growth of knowledge in the social sciences.

Prerequisites
PG 102 or permission of the instructor.

How do emerging democracies confront violent pasts while constructing the political institutions for a stable future? Does the need to heal society outweigh individuals' claims to justice for human rights abuses? In this course students examine the choices post-conflict societies have made and continue to confront throughout Latin America. The region has often been characterized by civil war, autocratic government, and grave human rights violations. At the same time, Latin America has emerged as an innovator of institutional forms that have allowed states to confront violence, seek justice, and transition to democracy--a broad array of institutions known collectively as "transitional justice" mechanisms. In the first half of the course students explore the process through which societies in Latin America have sought to come to terms with violent pasts with a focus on specific country case studies. We situate these individual cases in a broader exploration of transitional justice mechanisms, from criminal prosecutions of past leaders to truth commissions that trade amnesty for information. In the second half of the course students will apply these concepts to an in-depth simulation of peace negotiations. Students will represent the interests of a specific political stakeholder while negotiating the form and functioning of transitional justice institutions that might put the country on a path toward peace, justice, and reconciliation.

Prerequisites
PG 102,103, or permission of the instructor.

The roots and extent of America's involvement in world affairs; ideological, institutional, and strategic factors shaping U.S. foreign policy since WWII. America's responsibility and influence on global conditions. Approaches to analyzing American foreign policy.

Prerequisites
PG 103 strongly recommended. Students with transfer credit for PG 331 may not take this course.

A theoretical and practical examination of the role played by a number of international and regional organizations in the international system today. Comprehensive study of a number of international organizations including the United Nations.

Prerequisites
PG 103.

What is international Law? Who determines its content? Why do sovereign states willingly bind themselves under its rules? Is it a tool of the powerful, or a safeguard against exploitation? In short, does international law matter? This course draws on primary source materials (cases and treaties) and scholarly articles to examine the processes of international law as seen from the perspective of politically motivated actors. Readings examine broad theoretical issues pertaining to international law as well as the functioning of international legal regimes in specific issue areas such as trade, human rights, and the environment. Students apply political science methodologies in an attempt to understand and explain the behavior of states and non-state actors as they engage in a competition to create, enforce, and resist international law. Students should have a familiarity with international relations theory and social science methodologies prior to taking the course.

Prerequisites
PG 103.

This course examines the configuration of word politics and how claims of individual and group rights challenge the current global framework. Students examine the role of the state as a meaningful purveyor of rights and material goods. The also analyze and critique alternative approaches to organizing human populations in an increasingly globalized world. It is easy to say that the world's poor deserve a better material existence. It is much more difficulty to determine where the duty to provide resources lies, and how individuals, states, and organizations might achieve better outcomes. Students examine these issues from the perspective of states, international organizations, and non-governmental entities.

Prerequisites
PG 103.

This course explores evolving threats to global peace and stability in the post-Cold War era. The class tests the efficacy of traditional theories about international conflict through the examination of a number of contemporary security problems. Attention focuses on issues that are persistent, politically explosive, and global in scope, such as nationalism, migration, and environmental problems. All have potential for generating violent conflict in the world today.

Prerequisites
PG 103.

This course examines the phenomenon of terrorism on many different dimensions. First, it explores what is meant by the term "terrorism," and the question of "Is one man's terrorist another man's freedom fighter?" Next, the class considers why certain groups turn to terror. What do they hope to accomplish and how does terrorism help them achieve their goals? The course then turns to looking at various examples of terrorism and strategies to combat it. Is terrorism best fought like a military conflict or like an international crime? How can states hope to protect themselves? Ethical issues are also addressed, such as how the needs of national security are balanced against the requirements of civil liberties in a free, democratic society. Finally, the course considers the War on Terror itself, analyzing its strategies and tools and assessing its purpose and efficacy.

Prerequisites
PG 102 or 103.

This course examines the current relationship between the United States and Canada. After a brief overview of U.S. and Canadian political institutions, and initial efforts to distinguish American and Canadian political culture, this course then focuses on contemporary issues in the complex political, economic and social relationship between the two states.

Prerequisites
PG 102 or 103.

The course examines the constitutional law of U.S. national security policy. It explores classic constitutional issues, such as separation of powers, war powers of the President and Congress, intelligence operations, and treaty-making, as well as contemporary policy issues, such as domestic wiretapping, and the internment and trial of suspected terrorists.

Prerequisites
PG 101, 103, or permission of the instructor.

Empires have existed since the pre-modern era, and until the mid-twentieth century imperial states were the dominant form of government. Today, no state refers to itself as an empire--yet the term is still widely used. Some call modern American foreign policy "imperialist." Other react that American power is a stabilizing force. The purpose of this course is to examine critically the meaning of the term "empire." What do empires have in common? What are the political causes of empire, and what are its effects on the colonizer and the colonized? What are the common attributes of this form of governance across time and space? Is economic dominance without political conquest "imperial" in any meaningful sense of the word? If the United States has an empire, what exactly does this mean? Do American interactions with other peoples reflect earlier patterns of imperial dominance, or do users of the term "empire" (perhaps willfully) mischaracterize the phenomenon of benign American hegemony? Students attempt to answer these questions through critical examination of historical forms of empire and contemporary accounts of American political and economic policy. Students should complete PG 103 and have a basic familiarity with international relations theory and social science methodologies prior to taking the course.

Prerequisites
PG 103 or instructor permission.

This course examines ancient Athenian political philosophy and applies the questions reaised in those texts to contemporary political challenges. In light of the ideas, words, and deeds of thinkers from ancient Greece, students ask themselves: 'how shall we live, and what shall we do in our time?' Thinkers studied typically include Homer, Thucydides, Aristotle, and Plato. The course also explores Greek satire and tragedy.

This course examines the theoretical foundations of liberalism and radical critiques of it from both the left and the right. In addition to exploring the political implications of the various conceptions of nature, human nature, justice, freedom, and equality found in the works of various thinkers, students use their arguments to reflect on contemporary liberal democratic theory and practice. This course serves as a senior capstone course in political theory. Students who wish to complete a senior thesis should consult the requirements to enroll in PG 490.

Prerequisites
PG 104 or permission of instructor. Credit will not be granted to students who have received credit for PG 441.

This seminar explores recent trends in the field of political theory. Contemporary political theory focuses predominantly on new thinking related to justice, identity and democracy. Theories of distributive justice (developed by John Rawls) or communicative action (offered by J?rgen Habermas) often serve as a starting point the reconsideration of political community central to contemporary political theory. In the process of questioning the boundaries of modern political community, the inclusiveness of democracy, or the fairness of justice, political thinkers have moved beyond institutional definitions of politics and democracy. Rather, the subject (in all its forms: political, cultural, or social) and language have emerged as important points through which to understand "the political." As a result, this seminar addresses the politics of identity reflective of race, class, sexuality, gender, or location at work in the formation of democratic community and practice. Recent theories with this attention toward identity at their foundation have suggested new ways to think about democracy by emphasizing deliberation, new forms of citizenship, plurality, and a dissociation of democracy from the nation-state. Issues at the transitional level also closely related to these questions of democracy, including nationalism, immigration, colonialism, and post-colonial politics, are also addressed in the course.

Prerequisites
PG 104.

What is justice? How should society be governed? What is the good life? Questions like these, while abstract and philosophical, underpin all international political disputes, and understanding them is a first step towards resolving the conflicts inherent in international relations. This course seeks to draw connections between the problems of international politics and the world of political philosophy. It traces the history of political thought, from ancient Greece and its protean ideas of both realism and idealized governance through the hard-nosed politics of Machiavelli and Hobbes and the modernized idealism of Kant and Grotius up to the present-day thinking of such international relations scholars as Morgenthau, Waltz, and Walzer. In doing so, the class explores the connections linking political thinking and events across time, taking lessons from different times and applying them to the problems of today. The course concludes by examining four case studies of real policy problems, including humanitarian intervention, the role of international law, and the invasion of Iraq, through the lens of political theory.

Prerequisites
PG 104.

In the words of former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, "Europe was created by history; America was created by philosophy." The history and character of the United States cannot be understood without careful examination of the ideas, theories, and philosophies that underpin the American nation. This course examines the various strands of American Political Thought, beginning with the early political thought of the Puritans. Much attention is paid to the theories that unite the United States, such as the adoption of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, as well as those ideas that have divided the nation, such as race and slavery during the Civil War. The course concludes by considering the enduring tensions in American liberalism and the modern civil rights era.

This course interrogates intersectionality as an approach to the study of politics. Students will study the history and theory of intersectionality and will engage current debates about the application, benefits, and limitations of the intersectional method. In the second part of the semester, students will undertake a archival, group-based research project as a way to test the intersectional method.

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Knowledge, Identity, and Power

Students explore the concepts of citizenship and personhood in the American political imagination as filtered through a racial valence. Perhaps what is most striking about this valence is the way that it ' and Americans' conceptions of whiteness, citizenship, and personhood ' has evolved through America's history. Students will consider what role such images play in constructing a 'shared' political community, and to what extent the exclusions they engender strengthen or undermine this community.

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Knowledge, Identity, and Power

Can ideologies, when put in to practice, live up to the utopian dreams of their visionaries? Or will they degenerate into dystopian nightmares? In this course in political theory, students study many of the ideologies that have shaped politics in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. They explore the core theoretical texts of nationalist, anarchist, socialist, liberal, and Islamist movements, including Marx, Mao, Mussolini, Qutb, and others. Finally, they reflect on the (perhaps utopian) ideals that shape these movements and on how those ideals have influenced politics and political arrangements.

This course is concerned with the nature of law and the relationship between law and morality. The course is centered on questions like the following: What is the connection between law and morality? Is it morally wrong to break the law? Is breaking the law sometimes morally permissible or even morally required? Should morality be legally enforced? To what extent, if at all, should legal decisions be influenced by moral beliefs? What are the relationships between legal, constitutional, moral, and political rights? How can legal punishment be morally justified? While pursuing answers to these questions through the work of leading legal philosophers, students read a number of actual court cases and discuss specific issues like hate speech, homosexuality, and capital punishment, among others. Crosslisted as PHIL 378 / PG 348

Prerequisites
One previous course in Philosophy, or one course in Political Theory (PG 104, PG 340-348).

This course explores contemporary issues in political theory related to questions of citizenship, membership, and power. Students reflect on the structures and practices that determine who wields power, who holds citizenship status, who counts as a member of a political community. Students also explore the relationship between economic and political arrangements.

Prerequisites
PG 104 or permission of instructor. Credit for PG 349 will not be granted to students who have received credit for PG 440.

Looking at the interaction between religion and politics in the United States, students explore various understandings of the relationship between church and state, the treatment of minority religious communities and the influence of religion on the formation of American identity, institutions and policies. Students investigate various theoretical approaches and U.S. political development to provide a foundation for evaluating how religion and politics influence each other in the current moment. Topics include political behavior, public opinion, organizationsl activity, and public policies in areas such as gay rights, environmental policy, and immigration.

Prerequisites
PG 101.

Students engage in a series of seminars on the Washington state legislative process learning from experts in the field and engage in simulations of some of the core conflictual processes. Students learn about the difficulties of budgeting, the rules of the state legislative chamber and how they impact outcomes, the role of political parties and legislative leaders and industry lobbyists, as well as how to conduct legislative research, create sample legislative proposals, and write about state politics for the general public.

State governments are often overlooked, however, states wield tremendous power over the daily lives of citizens. A citizen's life can look very different depending on what state she lives in. The course takes a comparative approach to understand this critical level of U.S. politics. Why is marijuana legal in some states and not others? Why are the systems of public education so different? A comparative look allows students to ask why states respond differently to similar policy questions, considering the potential role of historical, cultural, economic and political contexts as well as variations in institutional arrangements. After delving into factors that alter the political opportunity structures in states, students turn to case studies. Looking at particular states and particular policy issues allows one to see how and why politics and political outcomes vary across states.

This course begins with a brief historical review of the rise of Islam as a political structure and its impact on the region, as well as the development of the Ottoman Empire and its institutional legacies. This discussion will be followed by a focus on colonialism and its effects, in particular the development of nationalism, populism, Islamism and Zionism. From there we will consider ways in which scholars have attempted to analyze and understand Middle East politics and institutions, drawing comparisons to state building, authoritarianism, and democratization elsewhere in the world. After examining these theories we will consider a number of specific areas, which may include economic development, ethnic and religious politics, and regional dynamics. We will also turn our attention to a number of cases, which may include Egypt, Israel and Palestine, Saudi Arabia and Iran. Students will have the opportunity to investigate particular topics and cases through in depth, policy-oriented research and writing, which will be the focus on the second half of the course.

Prerequisites
PG 102.

This course focuses on Iran and its relationship with its neighbors in the Persian Gulf and beyond. The course begins with an investigation of the emergence of modern Iran, including the development of the Iranian state and national identity. The course then focuses on the origins of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, looking at the impact of ideological and religious forces in the overthrow of the previous regime. This is followed by a discussion of how the Iranian Revolution affected regional politics, including the rise of political Islam and the use of terrorism as a political tool. Current political institutions and issues in Iran are also given attention, as well as the relationship between Iran and other actors, including Saudi Arabia, Israel, and the United States. The course concludes with an analysis of the prospects for political change in Iran.

Prerequisites
PG 102.

This course examines courts as political actors. Why do political actors create courts? Why do legislators, executives, and bureaucracies obey them? Do courts take political, economic, and social factors into account when determining how to rule? We will examine these topics through a broad-based comparative inquiry, drawing on materials from around the world: North and South America, Africa, Europe, the Middle East and South Asia, and the Asia-Pacific region.

Prerequisites
PG 102 or permission of the instructor.

This course is designed to familiarize students both with the institutions of the Japanese political economy and with a breadth of issues relevant to a deeper understanding of how political and economic processes actually work in Japan. It is comparative in nature and deals primarily with issues since 1945.

Prerequisites
PG 102 or permission of the instructor.

This course provides a fundamental understanding of the political, economic, and social foundations and permutations of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Students learn why a multidisciplinary political economy approach is most appropriate for comprehending the complex array of situational determinants that have shaped the PRC during both its revolutionary (1949-77) and reformative (1978-present) eras. Students employ the analytical tools of comparative political economy to identify and weigh those factors most relevant to this remarkable story of socio-political and economic development: political and economic, social and cultural, structural and historical, domestic and international.

Prerequisites
PG 102,103, or permission of the instructor.

This course is designed to guide students in developing a deeper understanding of key social science concepts and theories regarding identity, ethnicity and nationalism. Students learn how to employ the comparative social science method to better understand compelling political and social issues that are becoming increasing relevant and contentious under the conflicting conditions and aspirations of globalization, localization and nativism in the early 21st century. These concepts and methods are employed to analyze the complex processes accompanying the emergence, development, evolution and fragmentation of national identity in the geographic region known as Greater China, but these tools and understandings apply not just to Greater China, but to other ethnic groups, nations and cultural imaginaries of the world.

Prerequisites
Acceptance into the PacRim program.

A broad survey of politics in a region often characterized by poverty, political instability, authoritarianism, populism, corruption, and violence. The course explores some of the major approaches to Latin American politics by focusing on political institutions, political culture, non-state actors, and civil society. The course is organized around key themes that are illustrated using a number of cases, which may include among other, Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela, Chile, and Brazil.

Prerequisites
PG 102, 103, or LAS 100.

The course examines the intersection of environmental issues with politics and policy-making on a global as well as a local scale. It explores international structures and efforts to deal with environmental problems, a wide range of particular environmental challenges such as climate change and conservation, and the different experiences of individual countries in trying to use and manage their natural resources. Throughout, the relationships between political and natural systems are explored, with a particular focus on the ways in which politics and policy can both produce effective strategies and new difficulties for handling environmental challenges. Crosslisted as ENVR 382 / PG 382.

Prerequisites
ENVR 101 or 200 or PG 102 or PG 103.

What are the political and economic implications of natural resource endowments? Why is international cooperation on natural resource governance and, especially, climate change so difficult? This course addresses these and other pressing questions through a broad overview of the politics of natural resources. The course begins by examining how oil and other minerals influence political and economic development, and why mineral rich countries appear more likely to engage in war and conflict. It then focuses on other resources, namely water, forests, and clean air, and evaluates the role that governments and international cooperation play in ensuring access to them. The course culminates in a section on politics of climate change at the local and international level. This course is appropriate for students who want to explore politics and governance of natural resources in an analytical and systematic manner.

This course examines the political implications of ethnic diversity around the globe. How does ethnic identity relate to nationhood? How do ethnic cleavages affect governance, political mobilization, and development? Does ethnic identification affect a state's propensity for war? How can institutions and policies moderate or exacerbate these tendencies? Students use theory and concrete examples to examine how political scientists measure and compare ethnicity and its effects around the world. While reference to the U.S. and Europe will be made, emphasis will be on Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The course concludes with a weeks-long, in-depth simulation of politics on the Indian subcontinent. This course explores topics across subdisciplines; as such students are encouraged to complete both PG 102 and PG 103 prior to or concurrently with this course. This course counts toward both the Comparative Politics and International Relations subfield concentrations.

Prerequisites
PG 102, 103, or permission of instructor.

In her landmark work on feminism and international politics, Cynthia Enloe encourages scholars to ask, "Where are the women?" when trying to understand international relations. This course introduces students to feminist analysis of international relations by engaging both theoretical and practical questions about women's experiences in the world. From a foundation of ethics, the course builds to address the place of gendered analysis in international relations issue areas such as security, political economy, and migration.

Prerequisites
PG 103 or 104 and one additional PG course.

Despite the centrality of human rights in multilateral institutions, many aspects of international human rights -- as defined by international law -- are controversial, and their implementation at global and domestic levels remains incomplete. This is a survey course on human rights that analyzes the gap between human rights in theory and human rights in practice. Students explore the following questions: What are global human rights? Can we identify patterns of human rights violations, particularly for marginalized groups? What role do international law and institutions play in promoting human rights? How do non-governmental organizations affect human rights globally?

Prerequisites
PG 103. Students who have previously received credit for PG 362 Human Rights in Global and Comparative Perspectives may not enroll in this course.

This course considers the evolution of the idea of morally justifiable warfare, primarily in the Western context. Students trace just war theory from the ancient world to the present day, with attention to both religious and secular theoretical texts. The course encourages students to think about recent and contemporary international relations through the lens of just war theory.

Prerequisites
PG 103 or 104.

This course is a study of a number of philosophical and political questions related to gender and with the relation between these two types of questions. The course will be concerned first, with metaphysical issues concerning gender: What is gender? How many genders are there? Is there an essence of womanhood or manhood that goes beyond certain physical characteristics? Are 'woman' and 'man' purely natural categories or are they to some extent socially constructed? Is gender a social/political concept? Second, with epistemological issues that relate to gender difference: Do women, for example, see the world differently from men? What kind of implications does this have for scientific and philosophical knowledge? Are there, for example, specifically female ways of thinking or reasoning? If so, to what extent are they marginalized? Do gender related values or political aims affect scientific knowledge? Finally, with ethical issues related to gender: What is gender oppression? What is sexism and heterosexism? Granted that everyone has an equal right to flourishing regardless of gender, is a woman's flourishing, for example, different from a man's? Are there specifically gendered roles for men and women? To what extent are we culturally biased when we think that women or those who don't conform to gender norms living in other cultures are oppressed? Cross-listed as PG/PHIL 390.

Code
Knowledge, Identity, and Power

Students in this capstone course focus on some major concerns of U.S. politics or public law and are required to complete assignments in the topic area of the seminar. The theme or topic of the seminar changes from year to year, and prospective students should check with U.S. politics faculty to determine the theoretical and substantiative focus of the upcoming offering. Students who wish to complete a senior thesis should consult the requirements to enroll in PG 490.

Prerequisites
PG 101, two 300-level courses completed in the US Politics track, PG 200, and senior standing; or permission of instructor.

Students in this capstone course study major theoretical approaches to comparative politics and are required to apply those approaches to one or more writing projects. The theme of this seminar changes each year. Prospective students should check with the comparative politics faculty to determine the theoretical, substantive, and geographical focus. Students are expected to participate regularly in seminar discussions and may be responsible for leading class sessions. Students who wish to complete a senior thesis should consult the requirements to enroll in PG 490.

Prerequisites
PG 102, two 300-level courses completed in the Comparative Politics track, PG 200, and senior standing; or permission of instructor.

Students in this seminar critically examine older and emerging theories of international relations as well as the issues and problems those theories attempt to explain. Students may be expected to lead and participate in class discussions and to take an oral examination. Students who wish to complete a senior thesis should consult the requirements to enroll in PG 490.

Prerequisites
PG 103, two 300-level courses completed in the International Relations track, PG 200, and senior standing; or permission of instructor.

This course explores contemporary issues in political theory related to questions of citizenship, membership, and power. Students reflect on the structures and practices that determine who wields power, who holds citizenship status, who counts as a member of a political community. Students also explore the relationship between economic and political arrangements. This course serves as a senior capstone course in political theory. Students who wish to complete a senior thesis should consult the requirements to enroll in PG 490.

Prerequisites
PG 104 or permission of instructor. Credit for PG 440 will not be granted to students who have received credit for PG 349.

This course examines the theoretical foundations of liberalism and radical critiques of it from both the left and the right. In addition to exploring the political implications of the various conceptions of nature, human nature, justice, freedom, and equality found in the works of various thinkers, students use their arguments to reflect on contemporary liberal democratic theory and practice. This course serves as a senior capstone course in political theory. Students who wish to complete a senior thesis should consult the requirements to enroll in PG 490.

Prerequisites
PG 104 or permission of instructor. Credit will not be granted to students who have received credit for PG 441.

Students in this seminar critically examine contemporary issues and recent scholarly works in the field of Public Law. Students may be expected to lead and participate in class discussions and to complete written and project-based coursework. Students who wish to complete a senior thesis should consult the requirements to enroll in PG 490.

Prerequisites
Three 100-level PG courses, two 300-level courses completed in the Law, Politics, and Society track, PG 200, and senior standing, or permission of instructor.

This is an optional thesis course in Politics and Government. Students who wish to complete a thesis do so in the spring semester of their senior year (having completed the field-specific capstone course in the fall semester of the senior year). In the course, students complete much of the thesis work independently under the supervision of the thesis instructor. Students are permitted to enroll in PG 490 by satisfying these criteria: successfully completing PG 410, 420, 430, 440, or 441; developing a prospectus for the thesis project in consultation with a field advisor during the fall semester of the senior year; participating in a consultative meeting with both the field advisor and the thesis instructor before the end of the fall semester of the senior year.

Prerequisites
PG 410, 420, 430, 440, or 441, and instructor permission.

Independent study is available to those students who wish to continue their learning in an area after completing the regularly offered courses in that area.

Independent study is available to those students who wish to continue their learning in an area after completing the regularly offered courses in that area.

Students complete 120 hours of field experience at a site prearranged in consultation with the department and internship coordinator. In addition, the student works with a faculty mentor within the department to develop an individualized learning plan which must be pre-approved by the department and completed alongside the field experience. The learning plan is tailored to integrate the field experience with relevant scholarship, linking the major to practical job experience. One unit of PG 498 may count toward the major.

Prerequisites
Approval of tutorial professor and the Internship Coordinator.