Physical geology is a survey of the physical processes operating on and in the earth and the results of these processes through time. Topics covered range in scale from the atomic to the galactic. The formation of the minerals and lavas, types of volcanoes, and the creation of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks make up the first third of the course; this introduces the materials of the earth. The course next covers large-scale topics such as the age of the earth, earthquakes and their resultant damage, how continents and seafloors are created, a brief history of the world, and an outline of the great unifying theory of geology, plate tectonics. The last third of the course discusses how surface processes such as streams, wind, waves and changes in the environment affect the deserts, glaciers, shorelines, and groundwater, and how these changes affect our way of life. Includes a laboratory.

Prerequisites
Credit for GEOL 101 will not be given to students who have received credit for GEOL 104.
Code
Natural Scientific Approaches

This course examines the range of natural environments of North America and the geologic, climatic, and biogeographic basis for this diversity. Focusing on the major physiographic divisions of the United States and Canada, the course looks at the relationship between these fundamental factors, the unequal distribution of natural resources, and the geography and history of human response to them. Includes laboratory.

Prerequisites
Credit for GEOL 104 will not be granted to students who have received credit for GEOL 101.
Code
Natural Scientific Approaches

Earth is largely a "water planet" - the only planet we know of that has liquid water on its surface. Oceanography has developed from early mythological explanations of the present use of high technology to study their features and workings. The oceans played an integral role in the exploration of Earth and the spread of humankind across the planet, as well as being a continuing source of food and other resources. In the Puget Sound region, we feel the effects of the nearby ocean daily, from the weather we have to food we eat. This course investigates the origins and nature of Earth's oceans. It looks at processes acting within the oceans (tides, currents, waves), interaction of the oceans, atmosphere, and continents, and the effects of these processes on life on Earth, including humans in the northwestern U.S. These facets are studied in the "big picture" context of the Earth as an integrated system in which each process affects the others. A portion of the lab time is devoted to measurement of the properties of oceanic and crustal material, some of which are collected locally from Puget Sound. Other labs are used to familiarize students with maps, charts, and other information sources. Emphasis is placed on making inferences about Earth systems from data gleaned from students' own measurements and other sources.

Prerequisites
Students who have GEOL 105 transfer credit may not take this course.
Code
Natural Scientific Approaches

This course focuses on one of several geologic provinces in North America in the most direct manner possible - in the field. After an initial lecture orientation, the class explores the rocks, land forms, structures, and fossils first hand. Students learn to make their own observations and interpretations along the way. Each student becomes an expert in the geology of a selected area and makes in-field presentations to the rest of the class, as well as compiling a field notebook of the features that the class examines. Trips include the Colorado Plateau, the Death Valley region, and the Pacific Northwest.

Code
Natural Scientific Approaches

This course examines the wide variety of geologic, physical, chemical, and biologic evidence for the nature, duration, timing, and causes of climate change throughout the long history of our planet. In general, the course proceeds chronologically through geologic time. As the course approaches the modern world, students examine the paleoclimate record in progressively greater detail, and consider increasingly complex explanations for the patterns seen. This course also examines the complex interactions between the development of modern human societies and global climate, and considers some projections of climate change and its effects on our planet in the next few decades.

Code
Natural Scientific Approaches

This course introduces the methods used to identify minerals and rocks and provides an overview of the processes by which they form. Topics covered include chemical and physical properties of minerals, mineral associations, and the classification, genesis, and interpretation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Labs emphasize the identification of samples in hand specimen and by x-ray diffraction.

Prerequisites
GEOL 101, or 104, or 110. May be taken concurrently.

This course investigates the shape, composition, and formation of the major internal and external features of the Earth: ocean basins, continents, mountain ranges, the core, the mantle, and the lithosphere. A large portion of time is spent obtaining and interpreting quantitative geophysical measurements of Earth properties. This includes collecting and analyzing seismic, gravity, and magnetic and paleomagnetic data, measuring the gravitational constant, and determining Earth's size and mass, the thickness of the crust, and the distance to earthquake epicenters. Emphasis is placed on geophysical methods used by scientists in the measurement of basic Earth properties.

Prerequisites
GEOL 101, 104, or 110, or permission of the instructor.

The origin, texture, composition, classification, and interpretation of sediments and sedimentary rocks. The various methods for studying these materials in the field and laboratory are emphasized. A portion of the course is devoted to the main groups of microscopic fossils that occur as components of many sedimentary rocks.

Prerequisites
GEOL 200.

Study of earth's architecture, major tectonic features and processes, and folding and fracturing in rocks; lab and field projects included.

Prerequisites
GEOL 200.

Detailed study of agents, processes, and products involved in landscape development and water movement at the Earth's surface. Special emphasis is on the effect of the Pleistocene (Ice Age) climate on landforms.

Prerequisites
GEOL 200.

This course covers igneous rocks and the processes by which they form. Specific topics include magma formation and evolution, characteristics of igneous rocks in different tectonic settings, and the causes, styles, and impacts of volcanic eruptions. Students learn and utilize a variety of field and lab techniques including ICP analysis and thin section microscopy.

Prerequisites
GEOL 200.

The principles, methods, and materials of stratigraphy and paleontology used to interpret the physical and biological history of the Earth. Emphasizes the classification, correlation, interrelationships, and interpretation of rock strata and of the various types of fossils that occur in these rocks.

Prerequisites
GEOL 101, 104, or 110, and GEOL 200.

This course investigates how life on earth has changed through time as recorded in the fossil record. It includes a survey of major invertebrate and vertebrate fossil groups, with emphasis on paleoecological pattern and process, and reconstruction of paleoenvironments.

Prerequisites
Any one of the following: GEOL 101, 104, 110; BIOL 101, 112.

In this course students learn a variety of techniques that are used to locate, describe, and document geologic features in the field. Specific topics include navigating with topographic maps and GPS, sketching geologic features, using a Brunton compass, recognizing and interpreting geomorphic features on topographic maps, aerial photos and lidar images, and working with ArcGIS to produce a variety of different types of maps. Three all-day field trips on Saturdays and/or Sundays are required.

Prerequisites
GEOL 200.

This course examines the physical, chemical, and geologic processes that determine the distribution, movement, and nature of freshwater resources (rivers, lakes, wetlands, and groundwater). The course pays particular attention to issues of water supply and quality in North America. Lab and field exercises introduce the fundamentals of measuring and modeling river and groundwater flow; field trips to several dams and reservoirs in Washington illustrate some of the ways that surface water resources are utilized.

Prerequisites
Any one of BIOL 111, 112, CHEM 110, 115, 120, 230, GEOL 101, 104, 140.

This course surveys the wide range of modern energy sources, and considers the prospects for their future supply and availability. Each energy source is explored from a wide range of perspectives, including: its origin, geographic distribution, energy density, energy "type" (gravity, chemical, radioactive, solar), processing, refining, or transformation from one form of mass or energy to another, transport (both pre- and post- processing/transformation), environmental costs (upstream and downstream- lifecycle considerations), and economic costs (cost/unit of energy produced). As ongoing events dictate, energy topics in the news are also considered, including economic, political, and environmental issues of the day.

Prerequisites
One course in the Natural Scientific Approaches core, one course in the Mathematical Approaches core, and ENVR 101 or 200 or permission of the instructor.

This course provides an introduction to the study of a variety of the Earth's natural resources, and the environmental impacts of their extraction and use. The course focuses on the origin of different types of resources including metallic and non-metallic mineral deposits, and building stone. A discussion/lab session is scheduled for in-class activities, labs and field trips. Course readings center around case studies from the primary scientific literature.

Prerequisites
One course in the Natural Scientific Approaches core and ENVR 101 or permission of the instructor.

This course provides an introduction to the ways in which chemical principles are used to study geological and environmental processes. The emphasis is on low-temperature processes that influence the chemistry of water, sediment, and soil. Specific topics include aqueous solutions, thermodynamics, mineral-water equilibria, oxidation-reduction reactions, adsorption-desorption processes, and applications of radiogenic and stable isotopes. The laboratory component of the course is field-based and involves sampling and analysis of water and sediment from around Tacoma.

Prerequisites
GEOL 101, or 104, or 110, and CHEM 110, or permission of the instructor.

A broad review of quantitative and qualitative biogeochemical methods used in the study of environmental science. The course will focus on isotopic and elemental analyses of geological and biological materials with applications to a range of questions. Examples include; energy flow, nutrient cycling, animal migration, and paleoceanographic conditions. The course readings will draw heavily upon case studies from the primary scientific literature.

Cross-listed as ENVR/GEOL 324.

Prerequisites
Any one of BIOL 111, 112, CHEM 110, 115, 120, 230, GEOL 101 or 104.

See description for GEOL 110.

Prerequisites
Permission of the instructor and GEOL 101 or 104 and GEOL 200.

This course examines the wide variety of geologic, physical, chemical, and biologic evidence for the nature, duration, timing, and causes of climate change throughout the long history of our planet. In general, the course proceeds chronologically through geologic time. As the course approaches the modern world, students examine the paleoclimate record in progressively greater detail, and consider increasingly complex explanations for the patterns seen. Because of the great breadth (interdisciplinary range) and great depth (wide range of time periods) of the topics considered, students use a wide range of sources, including semi-popular articles, textbooks, and primary literature. The lab focuses on examining a variety of primary sources of paleoclimatic information and techniques of data analysis, such as tree rings, pollen, and stable isotopes.

This course provides a laboratory or field research experience for juniors or seniors under the direction of a faculty mentor. Students may initiate a project or join a research project in the mentor's lab. Students must complete an agreement listing research activity to be completed, references, and a progress plan that will result in a written report and a presentation.

In this course, students explore a variety of current topics in the geosciences. The choice of topics varies from year to year, but are primarily based on current or proposed research topics being conducted by faculty and students in the department. Each student is responsible for preparing for and leading one class session; all students are responsible for thoroughly preparing for and participating in all class sessions.

Prerequisites
GEOL 101 or 104, 200, and one upper division Geology course.

Research and preparation of a senior thesis under the supervision of a faculty member. Public presentation of research results is required.

Independent study is available to those students who wish to continue their learning in an area after completing the regularly offered courses in that area.

Independent study is available to those students who wish to continue their learning in an area after completing the regularly offered courses in that area.

This scheduled weekly interdisciplinary seminar provides the context to reflect on concrete experiences at an off-campus internship site and to link these experiences to academic study relating to the political, psychological, social, economic and intellectual forces that shape our views on work and its meaning. The aim is to integrate study in the liberal arts with issues and themes surrounding the pursuit of a creative, productive, and satisfying professional life. Students receive 1.0 unit of academic credit for the academic work that augments their concurrent internship fieldwork. This course is not applicable to the Upper-Division Graduation Requirement. Only 1.0 unit may be assigned to an individual internship and no more than 2.0 units of internship credit, or internship credit in combination with co-operative education credit, may be applied to an und