A survey of descriptive and physical astronomy, which are given roughly equal stress. Descriptive astronomy involves time reckoning, calendars, and the motions of the sun, moon, and planets. Physical astronomy deals with the composition and origin of the planets and solar system, as well as the evolution of stars and galaxies. A weekly laboratory is required.

Prerequisites
Students who have PHYS 109 transfer credit may not take this course.
Code
Natural Scientific Approaches

This two-semester sequence of courses is designed for any interested student regardless of his or her major. The fundamental branches of physics are covered, including mechanics, heat, sound, optics, electricity, magnetism, and nuclear physics. Although it is assumed that the student brings only a background of high school algebra and geometry, additional mathematical concepts are developed within the course. A weekly laboratory is required.

Prerequisites
Credit will not be granted to students who have completed PHYS 121.
Code
Natural Scientific Approaches

This two-semester sequence of courses is designed for any interested student regardless of his or her major. The fundamental branches of physics are covered, including mechanics, heat, sound, optics, electricity, magnetism, and nuclear physics. Although it is assumed that the student brings only a background of high school algebra and geometry, additional mathematical concepts are developed within the course. A weekly laboratory is required.

Prerequisites
PHYS 111 or 121. Credit will not be granted to students who have completed PHYS 122.
Code
Natural Scientific Approaches

Fundamental principles of mechanics, gravity, and wave motion are treated. A weekly laboratory is required.

Prerequisites
MATH 180 or its equivalent (may be taken concurrently). Credit will not be granted to students who have completed PHYS 111. Students who have PHYS 121 transfer credit may not take this course.
Code
Natural Scientific Approaches

Fundamental principles of heat, electricity, magnetism, and optics are treated. Topics from the early twentieth century are introduced, leading to the Bohr model of the atom. A weekly laboratory is required.

Prerequisites
PHYS 121 and MATH 181 (may be taken concurrently). Credit for PHYS 122 will not be granted to students who have completed PHYS 112. Students who have transfer credit for PHYS 122 may not take this course.
Code
Natural Scientific Approaches

This course explores the principles of nuclear fusion through the engineering of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) nuclear reactor. Students gain both theoretical knowledge and practical skills on a diverse range of topics, including vacuum systems, high-voltage electrical systems, computer controls and sensing, radiation safety, and fabrication. The course is inquiry-based and student-centered. As such, students in this course are expected to design and carry out independent research and communicate their findings to the class and public. No prior knowledge is required for this course.

Prerequisites
Permission of the instructor.

This course is intended primarily for students having some background in music. The scientific aspects of musical sound are treated including the basic physics of vibrating systems, wave phenomena, and acoustics and their applications to musical instruments and musical perception. A weekly laboratory is required.

Prerequisites
One semester of college-level music theory, formal music training, or permission of the instructor. Students who have PHYS 205 transfer credit may not take this course.
Code
Natural Scientific Approaches

Astrophysics is the application of the laws and principles of physics to answer questions about the cosmos. This course develops the physics necessary to understand the origins, properties, and evolution of planets, stars and galaxies as well as investigating the application of physics to questions of cosmological significance. The semester is divided between studying the theoretical tools astrophysicists have developed and using those tools with several small hands-on archival data analysis tutorials. Each student will end the semester by completing an individual observational or theoretical research project.

Prerequisites
PHYS 121/122 and MATH 180/181 or permission of the instructor.

The physics of waves is studied with emphasis on the nature of light, including propagation, interference, diffraction, and polarization. The constant speed of light leads to a careful study of the theory of special relativity. A weekly laboratory is required.

Prerequisites
PHYS 122 and MATH 280 (may be taken concurrently).
Code
Natural Scientific Approaches

A continuation of PHYS 221, this course is an introduction to quantum mechanics with applications to atomic and solid state systems. A weekly laboratory is required.

Prerequisites
PHYS 221.
Code
Natural Scientific Approaches

This course is intended to teach the fundamental behavior of electronic components and their applications in various circuits. A balance of lecture and laboratory experience demonstrates the practical method of investigation of electronic devices. Original design of electronic circuits is emphasized. Topics include AC and DC circuit analysis, amplifiers, active and passive filters, operational amplifiers, and digital electronics.

Prerequisites
PHYS 112 or 122.

This course treats the ancient astronomical tradition from its beginnings around 700 BC down to its culmination in the astronomical Renaissance of the sixteenth century. Attention is devoted not only to the emergence of astronomy as a science, but also to the place of astronomy in ancient life, including its use in time-telling, and its affiliations with literature and philosophy. The treatment of ancient technical astronomy is thorough enough to permit the student to apply ancient techniques in practical problems, e.g., in the design of sundials and the prediction of planet positions. Concrete models and scale drawings are used to deepen understanding and to simplify analysis, but some geometry is required.

Prerequisites
One course satisfying the Humanistic Approaches core requirement.
Code
Natural Scientific Approaches

This introduction to mechanics begins with the formulation of Newton, based on the concept of forces and ends with the formulations of Lagrange and Hamilton, based on energy. The undamped, damped, forced, and coupled oscillators are studied in detail.

Prerequisites
PHYS 122 and MATH 301 (may be taken concurrently), or permission of the instructor.

Newtonian mechanics and methods of probability are combined and used to gain new insights regarding the behavior of systems containing large numbers of particles. The concept of entropy is given new meaning and beauty. Certain properties of metals and gases are derived from first principles. The analysis of spectra leads to the initial development of the quantum theory and the statistics obeyed by fundamental particles. This course assumes a knowledge of calculus.

Prerequisites
PHYS 305 and MATH 280 or permission of the instructor.

An introduction to experimental physics, involving independent work on several physical systems.

Prerequisites
PHYS 221 or permission of the instructor.

Theory of electrostatic and magnetostatic fields is discussed, with emphasis on the theory of potential, harmonic functions, and boundary value problems.

Prerequisites
PHYS 122, MATH 280, and MATH 301 (may be taken concurrently).

This is a continuation of PHYS 351, emphasizing radiation, the propagation of electromagnetic waves, and the theory of special relativity.

Prerequisites
PHYS 351.

This course explores the principles of physics applied to living systems. Topics include diffusion, hydrodynamics and the low Reynolds-number world, importance of entropy and free energy, entropic forces, molecular machines, membranes, and nerve impulses. Written and oral scientific communication is emphasized. This course is appropriate for junior or senior undergraduates in the sciences, particularly physics and biology. No specialized knowledge of biology or physics is expected, but a facility with algebraic manipulations and a working knowledge of calculus is needed.

Prerequisites
Math 180 and Physics 111 or 121; and either BIOL 212 or a 300-level course in Biology or Physics; or permission of the instructor.

This course provides a theoretical or experimental physics research experience for juniors or seniors under the direction of a faculty mentor in the Department of Physics. The research will result in a written summary of the research results.

Prerequisites
Completion of Directed Research Contract with permission of research mentor, to be approved by department chair and Registrar before student registers.

This course is an introduction to the quantum theory of matter. The emphasis is on exactly soluble systems including the infinite square well, harmonic oscillator, and hydrogen atom. The theory of angular momentum is also discussed.

Prerequisites
PHYS 305, PHYS 351, MATH 290, and MATH 301, or permission of the instructor.

This is a continuation of Physics 411. The emphasis is on achieving perturbative solutions to real physical systems. Topics may include time-independent and dependent perturbation theory, the WKB method, a discussion of the interaction between light and matter, and scattering.

Prerequisites
PHYS 411, or permission of instructor.

Research may be undertaken under the supervision of a faculty member on a topic agreed upon and described in a proposal to the supervising instructor.

Research may be undertaken under the supervision of a faculty member on a topic agreed upon and described in a proposal to the supervising instructor.

Advanced topics in mechanics, optics, quantum mechanics, or other fields are studied. This course is offered in response to student interest in particular advanced topics.

Prerequisites
PHYS 305 and 351 or permission of the instructor.

A good example of a variational principle is Fermat's principle of least time: light will travel from point A in the air to point B in the water by 'choosing' the path that requires the least amount of time. The law of refraction is easily deduced from this principle. In mechanics, Maupertuis's principle of least action plays a similar role in determining the path followed by a particle or a planet in a force field. In this course, students learn about many of the historically important variational principles of physics -- including the principles of Fermat, Maupertuis and Hamilton. Students apply these to fields as diverse as optics, mechanics, quantum mechanics, and general relativity. This is a course in mathematical physics, so most of the work involves actually learning how to solve physics problems associated with variational principles. But readings, lectures and discussion are also devoted to the rich history and philosophical issues surrounding variational principles.

Prerequisites
PHYS 305 and 351 or permission of the instructor.

Independent study is available to those students who wish to continue their learning in an area after completing the regularly offered courses in that area.

Independent study is available to those students who wish to continue their learning in an area after completing the regularly offered courses in that area.

This scheduled weekly interdisciplinary seminar provides the context to reflect on concrete experiences at an off-campus internship site and to link these experiences to academic study relating to the political, psychological, social, economic and intellectual forces that shape our views on work and its meaning. The aim is to integrate study in the liberal arts with issues and themes surrounding the pursuit of a creative, productive, and satisfying professional life. Students receive 1.0 unit of academic credit for the academic work that augments their concurrent internship fieldwork. This course is not applicable to the Upper-Division Graduation Requirement. Only 1.0 unit may be assigned to an individual internship and no more than 2.0 units of internship credit, or internship credit in combination with co-operative education credit, may be applied to an und