This course examines the works of some of the more important American intellectuals who lived and wrote in the years before the Civil War. The approach is biographical, and the aim is to relate ideas to the social, political, and personal situations of the thinkers. Special attention is given to the ways that these intellectuals dealt with the tension between individualism and social responsibility. Thinkers studied include Winthrop, Edwards, Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, Leggett, Calhoun, C. Beecher, S. Grimk?, Douglass, Fuller, Emerson, Thoreau, Noyes, Fitzhugh, and Melville.