The course begins by placing the Second World War within the concept of total war that emerged with growing scale or warfare experienced in the First World War. Attention is given to the causes of the war in light of the failure of the Treaty of Versailles and the rise of fascism. The course traces the success and defeat of the Axis powers in Europe between 1939 and 1945. Emphasis is placed on the plight of the Jews and the challenges that faced all civilians during the course of the war. The course ends with an analysis of the legacy of the Second World War in Europe.