Students in this seminar examine two different types of constitutional controversies. The first type of controversy concerns what should be included in the US Constitution while the second focuses on how to interpret the specific words, phrases, and clauses that have been incorporated in the Constitution. Examples of the first type of controversy that students examine include the 'Connecticut compromise' (the decision in 1787 to create a bicameral national legislature with equal state representation in the Senate) and the debates over adopting the Bill of Rights and the Fourteenth Amendment as well as the failed equal rights amendment. Examples of the second type of controversy that students examine vary and may include debates over the constitutionality of gun control, campaign finance reform, the death penalty, and the scope of Fourth Amendment protections. The seminar enhances students' understanding of constitutional argument in American history, nurtures students' ability to analyze and evaluate constitutional arguments, and provides students with opportunities to engage in constitutional argument.