This guide is intended as a resource to assist students in the preparation and submission of appropriate information for recital programs.
When compiling written information, it is important to keep in mind that an accurate and appropriately detailed program enhances the listening experience for the audience. The program provides the listener not only with the name of the work and the composer, but also other important points of reference, including information that places a work in its particular time period and within a composer’s own body of works. The program also provides documentation of your work, something that will prove valuable in future endeavors such as graduate school applications or other auditions.
The following guidelines and examples represent a variety of genres and show the required format for capitalization, use of italics, punctuation, and abbreviations.
IMPORTANT: Please submit your material using Times font, point size 12.
Titles such as “Sonata,” “Toccata,” or “Prelude” and “Fugue” are usually capitalized and not italicized. Include the key of the work, opus numbers and/or catalog number, and the movements to be performed. Movements are indented under the title, single spaced, and include numbers. Major keys are capitalized and minor keys are in lowercase; “flat” and “sharp” use a hyphen and are spelled. Catalogs are abbreviated and capitalized. “Opus” is capitalized and not abbreviated. Retain all foreign symbols.
Students may check The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (online or in Collins Memorial Library) for title and catalog information. The website below can also be a helpful resource: www.classical.net/music/composer/index.php.
Performing entire work:
Sonata in B-flat Major, K. 281
I. Allegro moderato
|Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
|Nocturne in g minor, Opus 15, No. 2||Frédéric Chopin
Performing one or more movements from a larger work:
|Sonata No. 62 in E-flat Major, Hob. XVI:52
III. Finale: Presto
|Franz Joseph Haydn
|Klavierstücke, Opus 118
I. Intermezzo in a minor
V. Romance in F Major
|Concerto in B-flat Major, K. 622
|Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
For works that have no catalog or opus number, use date of composition in parentheses:
|Lament (1998)||Christopher Tilley
Use quotation marks and parentheses for traditional descriptive names:
|Sonata in f minor, Opus 57 (“Appassionata”)||Ludwig van Beethoven
When performing a piece from a collection, opera, or musical italicize the name of the collection, opera, or musical:
|From Old American Songs
Long Time Ago
|adapted by Aaron Copland
Use full names for composers and list applicable birth and death dates in parentheses under name. To separate the birth year from the death year use an en dash, which is roughly the width of a capital “N,” slightly longer than a hyphen and shorter than an em dash. Do not include spaces before or after the en dash. On a Macintosh computer, create using “Option” plus “dash”; on a PC create using <Alt> plus the numbers 0150 on the right-side number pad.
For living composers, omit parentheses and indicate birth year with a “b.”.
Johann Sebastian Bach
If a work has been adapted, arranged, or transcribed, include both the name and dates of the composer and the adapter/arranger/transcriber.
|Allegro||Joseph Hector Fiocco
trans. by Sigurd Rascher
List performers’ names with soloist first, followed by instrument, typed in lowercase letters. If a Puget Sound student, include graduation year following the name.
John Smith ’12, violin
Mary Adams ’13, flute
Van Cliburn, piano
Performer’s bio should include name of current Puget Sound applied music instructor, a listing of other performing groups you participate in on or off campus, and additional musical experiences as a university student (study abroad, summer music programs, internships). Maximum of 100 words.
Include full name, year of graduation if a Puget Sound student or alumna/us, instructor’s name, and major.
Rebecca Doe ’11, student of Karla Flygare, is majoring in flute performance.
If the accompanist is the staff accompanist there is no need to include information. Their information is on file in the Office of Public Events.
For student accompanist, include full name, year of graduation if a Puget Sound student or alumna/us, instructor’s name, and major.
Jerry Doe ’12, student of Duane Hulbert, is majoring in music.
For other professional accompanists (guest accompanists), include full name and a few brief sentences regarding degree and experience.
Warren Jones received his Bachelor of Music and Master of Music degrees from New England Conservatory of Music. He has recently been named as "Collaborative Pianist of the Year" for 2010 by the publication Musical America. He performs with many of today’s best-known artists, including Stephanie Blythe, Denyce Graves, Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, Anthony Dean Griffey, Ruth Ann Swenson, Bo Skovhus, Samuel Ramey, and James Morris—and is principal pianist for the California-based chamber music group Camerata Pacifica.
Maximum of 100 words
Program notes should include the first citings of the name of the piece, the movements, and the composer in bold print. The notes should be centered on the piece performed and refrain from too much general information about the life of the composer. IMPORTANT: Program notes should be original compositions. The information should be researched via several sources, often offering the same information, but the wording and syntax must be unique—DO NOT PLAGIARIZE. The performer will be credited in the program for compiling the notes.
Maximum of 200 words for each work.
(WORD COUNT 192)
The Sonata in B-flat Major, K. 281 belongs to the group of six piano sonatas (K. 279–K. 284), which date from 1774–1775, a time when Mozart lived in Salzburg and Munich. Mozart frequently performed these sonatas. The sonatas demonstrate not only Mozart’s ability for assimilating stylistic traits of the time, but also a preoccupation with finding his own personal voice.
In this sonata, Mozart has written three movements showing a great diversity of mood, tempo, and formal structure. With the first movement, a standard sonata-allegro form, Mozart’s writing shows the influence of Haydn: a slower tempo marking (Allegro moderato), shorter phrase structures, the juxtaposition of duplet and triplet rhythmic figures, and the use of new material in the development section. In contrast to the first, the second movement shows Mozart’s ability for writing long melodic lines that are more vocally conceived. Mozart marks the movement Andante amoroso, an unusual marking for him but one that shows his interest in exploring a different, expressive quality of the piano. The third movement is a spirited rondo in which Mozart uses a variety of pianistic effects such as arpeggiated figures, trills, and octaves.
(WORD COUNT 119)
The Klavierstücke (Piano Pieces), Opus 118 was published in 1893, and is typical of the kind of piano works Brahms was writing during his last years: concise, song-like pieces, highly expressive and of mature musical substance. The Intermezzo in a minor, the first piece from this collection, is built on a single motif. A structurally compact work, it is sometimes referred to as a sonata form in miniature. Brahms’ characteristic fullness of sound is achieved by widely spaced arpeggiated figures, pedal points in the bass, and the doubling of the melodic line in octaves. His use of chromatic harmonies gives a sense of tonal ambiguity, even at the end, when the piece finally resolves on an A Major chord.