Example of a good submission

Sample Information: Arabidopsis thaliana, which is used as a model for plant biology, was transformed with the GUS reporter gene to show expression of RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 (RPK2), which has been proposed to be involved in perception of CLE-like proteins secreted by nematodes resulting in a successful infection. An infection assay was conducted with 14 day old Arabidopsis thaliana and recently hatched sugar beet cyst nematode to see if endogenous expression of RPK2 changes in response to nematode infection. In Arabidopsis roots, RPK2:GUS expression is normally restricted to root tips (rectangle). At the second-stage juvenile parasitic stage, 3 days postinoculation (arrow), RPK2:GUS expression was observed in established feeding sites. Scale bar, 100 μm. Abbreviation: nematode, N; syncytium, Syn.

Equipment Information: Stained roots were placed in glass petri dishes and visualized with a Nikon Eclipse TS100 inverted microscope (Nikon, Melville, NY, U.S.A.)

Scientific Significance: To date, the exact function of nematode CLE proteins during the infection process and their involvement in syncytia formation is unresolved. However, this study has shown that RPK2 is responding to nematode CLE signaling. The involvement of RPK2 in nematode CLE signaling or perception may shed some light onto how nematodes are tapping into existing signaling pathways to promote pathogenesis. These findings allow future studies to begin identifying downstream signaling components that are regulated by these receptors. The identification of receptors involved in nematode CLE signaling in Arabidopsis enables us to begin identifying the orthologs in agriculturally important crops for the development of engineered host resistance to cyst nematodes.

Caption: RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE RPK2:GUS expression during nematode infection. In Arabidopsis roots, RPK2:GUS expression is normally restricted to root tips (rectangle). Upon nematode infection, no detectable RPK2:GUS expression was observed during the early stages of syncytium formation at 24 to 48 h postinfection (hpi) (data not shown). At the second-stage juvenile parasitic stage, 3 days postinoculation (arrow), RPK2:GUS expression was observed in established feeding sites. Scale bar, 100 μm. Abbreviation:nematode, N; syncytium, Syn.